Laboratory

April 29, 2024

Methods of improving rapid FDM prototyping solutions in industrial systems using strategies of Industry 4.0

Ghinea Mihalache, Niculescu Alex Cosmin, Rosca Bogdan

National University of Science and Technology Politehnica Bucharest

Abstract

Modern production relies on technologies introduced by Industry 4.0 (known as Smart Manufacturing in the USA). As one of the nine pillars of this concept, additive manufacturing plays a crucial role, spanning from rapid prototyping to creating custom final products in the shortest and most cost-effective time.  Advances in this field have led to the development of various advanced manufacturing technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Stereolithography (SLA), and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), enabling the utilization of a wide range of metallic, plastic, and/or composite materials. Klipper is open-source software designed for 3D printers, providing capabilities for faster and more precise printing. The technique employed involves offloading computationally intensive processes to a separate microcontroller from that of the printer, resulting in performance, versatility, and customization benefits, significantly reducing the time of the prototyping process. The purpose of this article is to analyze the weaknesses of common/affordable printers with average performance using the software tools integrated into Klipper. Additionally, the study focuses on enhancing the performance of the printer Tevo Black Widow. As an additional outcome, it also focuses on improving the quality of printed parts (surface quality and dimensional accuracy). The study is comparative, analyzing the standard performance of a Tevo Black Widow printer with those offered by the same system while using the Klipper firmware.

1. Introduction

Various additive manufacturing techniques have been devised to fulfill the need for producing intricate structures with low waste (Hui et al., 2018). The advancement of these technologies has been primarily motivated by the desire for rapid prototyping, mitigating printing imperfections, and enhanc...

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April 2, 2024

PID Tuning in Klipper for 3D printers

What is PID tuning and how it works

First, we printed a calibration cube, and we identified that there appeared to be inconsistent layer heights, and after verifying the Z screws were moving freely and without a problem, we the first weakness of our printer, the fluctuating temperatures, so we used the PID tuning feature of Klipper (see Pranav, 2022) to solve this issue.

Fig. 1 Bed temperature fluctuations (blue)

PID controller stands for Proportional Integral Derivative Controller and in our case, it’s a digital temperature controller application, and its job is to take and maintain a steady state for a particular function (Microcontrollerslab, n.d.). It’s a closed-loop feedback system that continuously measures the error in your system and tries to correct it (Microcontrollerslab, n.d.). An error like the one seen in Fig. 1, where the temperatures fluctuate above and below the target.

Fig. 2 Klipper PID tuning routine

After running the PID_CALIBRATE

HEATER=heater_bed TARGET=60 and 

SET_HEATER_TEMPERATURE HEATER=extruder TARGET=210 commands in the console, as 210°C for the extruder and 60°C for the bed are the temperatures we’re usually printing at, the software runs a heat cycle routine (seen in Fig. 2) for the heated bed and the extruder that will generate the PID values and correct the fluctuations seen before while trying to hold a steady temperature (Klipper 3D Printer Firmware, n.d., b).

After saving the generated values by the commands in the configuration of the printer, we tested to see if it held a steady temperature, and it did. As that wasn’t enough proof we printed another calibration cube after the changes to see if there is any visible quality improvement.

Fig. 3 Cube before PID (left) next to cube after PID tuning (right)

The tuning has completely removed the horizontal rings that appeared on the cube on the left, as shown in Fig. 3, but this enabled another printing error to be more visible. The repeated horizontal patterns and lines are known as ringing or ghosting. That 3D printing quality issue results from vibration in layers, too high of a printing speed, high acceleration, or a displacement in the printing area (Klipper 3D Printer Firmware, n.d., e). …

April 2, 2024

Cybersecurity in AllDay

Considering the importance of the information that AllDay needs in order to fulfill its goal, the website’s database requires a number of layers of protection, resulting in the exploration and development of the cybersecurity field.

First of all, as any service that uses user authentication, it is imperative that the means in which the data transferred and stored are safe. To provide safe navigation from the session to the database the code uses JWT (JSON Web Token), which assures the database that the connection is safe, acting as a session token and a way of mapping every request. Storing passwords directly into the database can be a big security risk, which is why the back-end uses encryption before storing, so even if someone can access the information in the database, they can not exploit it. Because any risks have to be eliminated, the IP addresses are stored in the same way.

Second of all, a more complex and scientifically intriguing manner of using cybersecurity at its fullest is the way in which the algorithm acquires users’ IPs. Because of high-risk security reasons, websites can not get information about the device that is using them, so other ways had to be found to communicate with the user. For example, making a low-level session between the server and the device (by hosting a page from the website locally) can get the information needed. Of course, before taking any form of action, the users will be notified. 

This shows the paths that should be followed in order to ensure the cybersecurity of this website (with tokens and encryptions), as well as some ways of displaying the capabilities of this field, by developing unique methods of communication. 

February 10, 2024

AVENTICS™ Series AV03 Valve Series

This SYSTEM of valves is an amazing way to control pneumatic actuators in a system. It is an elegant and flexible way to add a lot of distribution valves while minimising the space used and decreasing the complexity of air tubes.

AVENTICS R42210242 5/2-directional valve

A pneumatic valve for automation

  • Has 5/2 switching
  • 300 l/min flow
  • -0.9 to 10 bar pressure
  • 24 V DC voltage
  • single solenoid
  • soft seal
  • spool valve
  • plate connection
  • spring return
  • base plate blocking
  • Can be modular

AVENTICS R422102429 5/3-directional valve

A 5/3-directional valve, part of the Series AV03 of pneumatic valves and valve systems from Emerson. It is designed for efficient and reliable automation solutions, especially for compact handling systems and complex automation applications.

The technical specifications of aventics R422102429 are as follows:

  • Activation: Electrically
  • Switching principle: 5/3
  • Version: Closed Center
  • DC operating voltage: 24 V
  • Manual override: without detent
  • Actuating control: Double Solenoid
  • Sealing principle: Soft Seal
  • Pilot: External (In this scenario, pilot means the external source of compressed air that is used to shift the valve piston. The pilot valve is a small valve that controls the flow of the pilot air to the main valve. The pilot air acts as a signal to change the position of the valve spool, which in turn changes the direction of the fluid flow in the system.)
  • Connection type: Plate connection
  • Return: With spring return
  • Control pressure: 3 to 8 bar
  • Ambient and medium temperature: -10 to 60 °C
  • Medium: Compressed air
  • Max. particle size: 40 µm
  • Oil content of compressed air: min. 0 mg/m³

https://www.emerson.com/en-us/catalog/aventics-sku-r422102429

AVENTICS R422102431 2×3/2-directional valve

A 2×3/2-directional valve, part of the Series AV03 of pneumatic valves and valve systems from Emerson. It is designed for efficient and reliable automation solutions, especially for compact handling systems and complex automation applications.

The technical specifications of aventics R422102431 are as follows:

  • Activation: Electrically
  • Switching principle: 2×3/2
  • Version: NC/NC
  • DC operating voltage: 24 V
  • Manual override: without detent
  • Actuating control: Double Solenoid
  • Sealing principle: Soft Seal
  • Pilot: External (In this scenario, pilot means the external source of compressed air that is used to shift the valve piston. The pilot valve is a small valve that controls the flow of the pilot air to the main valve. The pilot air acts as a signal to change the position of the valve spool, which in turn changes the direction of the fluid flow in the system.)
  • Connection type: Plate connection
  • Return: With spring return
  • Blocking principle: Base plate principle, multiple
  • Control pressure: 3 to 8 bar
  • Ambient and medium temperature: -10 to 60 °C
  • Medium: Compressed air
  • Max. particle size: 40 µm
  • Oil content of compressed air: min. 0 mg/m³

https://www.aventics.com/pneumatics-catalog/pdf/pro.813494_en_EU_R4.pdf

Aventics R422102427 5/2-directional valve

A 5/2-directional valve, part of the Series AV03 of pneumatic valves and valve systems from Emerson. It is made of high-performance polymers, reducing the weight and energy consumption of the system. It has a nominal flow of 300 l/min and a working pressure range of -0.9 to 10 bar. It also has smart features for machine safety and connectivity. Some of the technical specifications of aventics R422102427 are:

  • Activation: Electrically
  • Switching principle: 5/2
  • DC operating voltage: 24 V
  • Manual override: without detent
  • Actuating control: Double Solenoid
  • Sealing principle: Soft Seal
  • Pilot: External (In this scenario, pilot means the external source of compressed air that is used to shift the valve piston. The pilot valve is a small valve that controls the flow of the pilot air to the main valve. The pilot air acts as a signal to change the position of the valve spool, which in turn changes the direction of the fluid flow in the system.)
  • Connection type: Plate connection
  • Blocking principle: Base plate principle, multiple
  • Control pressure: 3 to 8 bar
  • Ambient and medium temperature: -10 to 60 °C
  • Medium: Compressed air
  • Max. particle size: 40 µm
  • Oil content of compressed air: min. 0 mg/m³
February 10, 2024

Introduction to Grafana

It is used to graph and monitor the data stored in InfluxDB. 

Basic graphing data

In the dashboard, click on the top bar of a graph and select edit. 

In the lower half of the screen there will be an area to change the rules for the graph. Click on the pencil on the right side and delete the default code.

Replace it with:

SELECT * FROM “DataTypeToGraph”

This will graph the data added to the database by a single InfluxDB node in Node-RED using the tag it was defined with.

Basic tabling data

In a new dashboard, under the sql code, from the dropdown select “Table”. After that select Table view from the tab on the right called Format. This should table each entry in the database instead of graphing it.

Use this SQL code to show only the last value recorded:

SELECT last(value) FROM “Data”

Show average in table

SELECT sum("value") / count("value")
FROM "Data"
WHERE $timeFilter
February 10, 2024

Introduction to Node-RED

Node-RED is a visual programming tool that allows users to create and connect hardware devices, APIs, and online services. It uses a web-based flow editor to drag and drop nodes, which represent different functionality, to create automated workflows. It simplifies the process of building Internet of Things (IoT) applications by providing a user-friendly interface for connecting and controlling devices.

Debug Node

The debug node is a built-in Node-RED node that allows users to view the message passing through the nodes in real-time. It is useful for troubleshooting and understanding the flow of data through a flow. 

Users can view the contents of the message, filter messages by type or topic, and output messages to the console in the sidebar. It is easy to use by simply dragging and dropping it into the flow and connecting it to other nodes.

The green square on the right means it will debug. Pressing it will stop the node from debugging without deleting it.

Debug On:

Debug Off:

Aventics Node

This node is used to access the sensors and values in the system.

The node looks like this:

Aventics Node Modules

  1. 01 Valve driver 4 valves – Controls the pneumatic distributors.
  2. 03 IO-Module dig. (8DI8M8) – Digital sensors module. It is connected to 8 magnetic sensors each situated at the end of every piston on the stand. Each address of the module is a different sensor output. In the software they are numbered from 1 to 8 but on the plastic module they are labeled from 0 to 7.
  3. 04/05 IO-Module ana. (2AI2M12-E) – Analog sensors module. Each module has 2 analog sensor inputs.

Parameters:

  • Topic – Cosmetic name of node for internal use only. It doesn’t affect other functionality.
  • Function – Determine how the data should be pulled from the sensor.
  • From – Select which sensor it pulls data from. Each address is a different sensor in the selected module.
  • Poll interval – The minimum delay between each reading. The sensor sends data each time it changes states. This will only delay the next reading. For x seconds it will not send any data after some data was sent.

Function Node

This node uses Javascript to transform data or use any other js function. 

To access the value in the input use msg.payload and change it for output value. Use return msg to output.

Airflow function

After the aventics node that takes data from the airflow sensor (04 IO-Module, address 01) place a function with this code. It will output the current airflow in L/min. 

Sensors give an analog signal to node red, usually from 0 to 32767. Each sensors needs to be calibrated. Our sensors outputs 0 when there is no airflow and using the built-in settings of the sensors we can see the max airflow going through the sensors was 315,43 L/min and it outputted a values of 2742. So by dividing it we can calculate a transfer equation.

msg.payload *= 0.115;
return msg;

Speed function

After the aventics node that takes data from the linear analog sensor (05 IO-Module, address 2), place a function node with this code. It will output the current speed of the cylinder in cm/s.

// This function node counts the time between two signals that are equal to 1
var lastTime = context.get('lastTimestamp');
var lastPos = context.get('lastDistance');

if(msg.payload 3200) {
	msg.payload = (msg.payload - 3200.0) / (29750.0 - 3200.0) * (51.1 - 7.13) // cm/s
    
	if (!lastTime) {
    	// Store the timestamp of the first 1 signal
    	lastTime = new Date().getTime();
    	lastPos = msg.payload;
    	context.set('lastTimestamp', lastTime);
    	context.set('lastDistance', lastPos);
	} else {
    	if (lastPos == msg.payload)
        	return
   	 
    	// Calculate the time difference between the first 1 signal and the current 1 signal
    	var deltaTime = new Date().getTime() - lastTime;
    	var deltaPos = msg.payload - lastPos;
   	 
    	context.set('lastTimestamp', null);
    	context.set('lastDistance', null);
    	msg.payload = (deltaPos)/(deltaTime);
   	 
    	return msg;
	}
}
return null;

InfluxDB Integration

The simple InfluxDB node takes whatever data it is given and along with a tag it is sent to the database along with a time stamp.

Select the second Server for data to be logged.

Each time a new piece of data is added to the database it will automatically get a timestamp when it was logged. 

Parameters:

  • Measurement – Name of the date stored and used for identification with SQL. 

Join Node

Every connection between the nodes sends a message msg with different parameters. Two of the most important ones in this node are msg.payload and msg.topic. 

msg.topic = “Name of the variable transported”

msg.payload = value of the variable transported

Using the Join Node, we can combine multiple variables into a single object. Like a json, each item in the object has a name (from the topic) and a value (from the payload). 

With this node, we can combine all the data and send it to a single influxDB node as a single table entry instead to keep the data organized. 

Parameters:

  • Mode – Automatic, Manual (usually preferred option)
  • Combine each – Choose which parameter to be the value of each item
  • to create – Output type of the node (usually Object)

Manual Mode parameters:

  • using the value of – name of each item in the Object
  • After a number of message parts – Number of item the node should wait for to output an object
February 6, 2024

Air preparation

AVENTICS™ Series AS2 Air Preparation Units

In the following, our team will present how an AVENTICS™ Series AS2 Air Preparation Unit works, what components our team possess, how we use and the way we have installed them.

In the pictures underneath one can see the parts that together build our air preparation unit.

You can find the general brochure that includes all the general information about the unit here.

It contains a multitude of different pieces and sets that Emerson makes and in the next part, the UPBAir team will present its equipment.

AVENTICS™ 3/2-shut-off valve, mechanically operated, Series AS2-BAV R412006257

The shut-off valve is used to power the system with compressed air from the tank or compressor.

Unlike a normal faucet, this aventics valve also removes the pressurised air from the system using a hole in the back of the module through a silencer.

Product page

AVENTICS™ Precision pressure regulator, Series AS2-RGP R412006148

A pressure regulator has the purpose of limiting the pressure at which the air is entering the system.

Using the black knob on the top, like a screw, the user can decide how much pressure to let into the system. The analog barometer indicates in real time the air pressure exiting the module.

Product page

AVENTICS™ Series AF2 flow rate sensor, IO-Link R412027176

The first such component we will present is the AVENTICS™ Series AF2 flow rate sensor, IO-Link R412027176. A flow meter (or a flow sensor) is type of flow instrument that is used to indicate the amount of gas moving through a pipe or conduit by measuring linear, non-linear, mass, or volumetric flow rates.

The way it can be assembled can be found here, while the instructions here.

February 6, 2024

Aventics cylinders

Aventics RTC-DA cylinder

Offers an optimized stroke length in a compact size, saving space.  The oval piston enables higher loads and torque, minimal leakage and a wide range of speeds for a better flexibility. The slide and piston as a single unit offers high load capacity and reliability. For more informations follow the link.

Aventics PRA MNR

Is a classical solutions for most applications including the heavy ones encountered in industries. It is lightweight and efficient. It also equipped with an adjustable pneumatic cushioning which reduces vibration and noise. The piston rod is made with 431 stainless steel which gives a higher resistance to corrosion. 
It is compatible with a range of accessories for the PRA series. In the laboratory the cylinder is anchored to the table using the CM1-MS1-050-M2-A foot mounting. Further informations can be found by following the link. The laboratory has 4 of these with different sizes: 
    - 40mm rod diameter, 500mm cylinder length
    - 63mm rod diameter, 320mm cylinder length
    - 50mm rod diameter, 320mm cylinder length
    - 63mm rod diameter, 500mm cylinder length
January 29, 2024

EMERSON RXI2-LP IPC

Research in the field of pneumatics is not always easy, but it is certainly rewarding. We, the UPBAIR team, employ a Powerful Industrial Computer (IPC) from Emerson, the RXi2-LP model, to streamline the data collection and analysis process resulting from experiments conducted in the laboratory.

From a hardware perspective, the RXi2-LP IPC boasts a stable and robust configuration. The proverbial brain of this dedicated Mini PC for industrial activities is an Intel Quad Core Processor clocked at 1.2GHz, paired with a modest 8 GB of ECC DDR3 RAM. The connectivity is also impressive, featuring not only 4 USB ports but also 4 Gigabit Ethernet ports. These, combined with speedy SSD storage, prove invaluable in research projects. For more informations about the product you can follow the following link.

In our laboratory, we opted to replace the default operating system (Windows 10) of the compact yet powerful “data-consuming” system with Linux, specifically the Ubuntu variant. We chose this option primarily for its stability, as in this field, Ubuntu surpasses any version of Windows.

January 29, 2024

AVENTICS™ Series AS2 Air Preparation Units

In the following, our team will present how an AVENTICS™ Series AS2 Air Preparation Unit works, what components our team possess, how we use and the way we have installed them.

In the pictures underneath one can see the parts that together build our air preparation unit.

You can find the general brochure that includes all the general information about the unit here.

It contains a multitude of different pieces and sets that Emerson makes and in the next part, the UPBAir team will present its equipment.

AVENTICS™ Series AF2 flow rate sensor, IO-Link R412027176

The first such component we will present is the AVENTICS™ Series AF2 flow rate sensor, IO-Link R412027176. A flow meter (or a flow sensor) is type of flow instrument that is used to indicate the amount of liquid, gas, or vapor moving through a pipe or conduit by measuring linear, non-linear, mass, or volumetric flow rates. The way it can be assembled can be found here, while the instructions here.

January 6, 2024

A Dive into Our Sensor Arsenal. Analog and Digital Sensors for IIoT monitoring and improvements

At The Smart Pneumatics Laboratory, we take pride in our commitment to innovation and precision in the field of pneumatics. Our laboratory is equipped with a diverse range of sensors that play a crucial role in our research and experiments. In this article, we invite you to delve into the fascinating world of pressure sensors, airflow sensors, air temperature sensors, as well as proximity inductive and magnetic sensors that form the backbone of our experiments.

Aventics AF2

By far our most prized sensor has to be the Aventics AF2. In out configuration using the IO-Link variant it can measure air pressure, air flow and temperature, two at a time. In most of our configurations it is placed right after the air preparation Aventics AS5 unit.

Our biggest project we used it in was to measure the energy of the compressed air entering the system to find out different configurations of pneumatic systems to improve energy efficiency.

Configuration manual: https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/operating-instructions-flow-rate-sensor-series-af2-aventics-en-6899510.pdf

Aventics PE5

This inexpensive and versatile pressure sensor can be placed anywhere in the pneumatic system to monitor air pressure. It connects using the same IO-Link cable like other sensors.

The biggest project it was used on it served the purpose to see the pressure drop at different points in different configurations of the same system to find the system with the highest efficiency.

Configuration manual: https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/instruction-manual-pressure-sensor-pe5-aventics-en-6892998.pdf

Aventics SM6

This is a linear sensor that is placed on the side of Aventics PRA Pneumatic Cylinder and it outputs exact position within a 2^15 accuracy range (from 0 to 32767). They are custom selected for the different length of cylinders. We have one 500mm and three 320mm such linear senors.

The biggest project they were used on was to explore the variations in acceleration of cylinders using different configurations. The sensor gave us the exact distance the rod has traveled in a time frame and using the second derivative we could find out the change in acceleration of the rod. Obviously a smoother extension/retraction with close to zero acceleration is ideal.

Configuration manual: https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/instruction-manual-distance-measuring-sensor-series-sm6-aventics-en-6896734.pdf

Aventics ST6

The Aventics ST6 magnetic sensor is a proximity sensor purpose made to attach to Aventics PRA Pneumatic Cylinder to check the position of the inner magnetic rod. Unlike the other sensors, this one is digital and it is really easy to install.

This sensor has been crucial to first of all drive the cylinder back and fourth. Two of the them are placed at each end of the Cylinder to switch the valves to extend the cylinder or retract it.

In IIoT these sensors are a really simple and inexpensive (monetarily and easy to calculate) solution to find the extension and retraction speed of the cylinder.

Configuration manual: https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/operating-instructions-sensor-atex-certified-st6-aventics-en-7553694.pdf

May 15, 2023

PIAB Vacuum Kit

The PIAB Vacuum Kit has proven to be a remarkable solution for industrial vacuum needs. Its powerful suction capabilities and versatile design make it a reliable choice. The kit offers a range of suction cups and accessories, allowing for efficient handling of various materials and objects. Whether it’s lifting heavy loads, gripping delicate items, or handling irregular shapes, the PIAB Vacuum Kit excels.

The adjustable vacuum strength and user-friendly controls provide flexibility and precision in operations. With its durable construction and reliable performance, this vacuum kit has become an indispensable tool for streamlining industrial processes and improving productivity.

  • Powerful suction capabilities for efficient handling of materials
  • Versatile design with a range of suction cups and accessories
  • Adjustable vacuum strength for flexibility and precision
  • User-friendly controls for ease of operation
  • Durable construction for long-lasting performance
  • Reliable grip on heavy loads and delicate items
  • Ideal for lifting, gripping, and handling irregular shapes
  • Streamlines industrial processes and enhances productivity
May 15, 2023

Pneumatic Technical Bench

A Pneumatic Technical Stand is a flexible platform used for testing and developing pneumatic components and systems. The stand includes a modular design, a variety of actuators and sensors, and pneumatic and electric control systems, allowing for customization and control of testing parameters. The stand is useful for R&D, quality control, and educational purposes, and provides a cost-effective alternative to large-scale test equipment.…

May 15, 2023

AR & VR

These technologies can simulate and visualize real-world scenarios, improve communication and comprehension of complex information, reduce errors, and save time and costs. However, high-end equipment and specialized skills are required for implementation, and further development is needed to improve accuracy and user experience.

Oculus Rift in VR Engineering: A Game-Changing Immersive Experience

The Oculus Rift in VR engineering is a game-changer. Its immersive capabilities transport engineers to virtual worlds where they can interact with intricate designs, examine components with clarity, and simulate real-world scenarios. The high-resolution displays and precise tracking offer breathtaking visuals and natural interactions. By integrating with VR engineering software, engineers can evaluate designs, test systems, and optimize performance before physical prototyping. The comfort of the Oculus Rift ensures extended sessions without compromising immersion. In summary, the Oculus Rift revolutionizes VR engineering, empowering engineers to visualize, analyze, and refine designs with unprecedented accuracy and excitement.…

May 15, 2023

Heidenhain CAM Simulator

It is a software application used to test, verify and optimize CNC machine programs before they are run on the actual machine. The software simulates the machining process by simulating the tool path, machine movement, and material removal, allowing the user to detect and correct programming errors, as well as optimize cutting parameters.

The Heidenhain TE 530B is a keyboard unit designed for use with the Heidenhain iTNC 530 contouring control. Its purpose is to provide an interface for the user to interact with the control system. Some of its benefits include its contouring keys, operating mode keys, and keyboard for use with WINDOWS which can make it easier to use the control system. It also has a touchpad and replaceable axis keys V and VI for added convenience. The spindle override potentiometer and feed-rate override potentiometer allow for more precise control over the machine’s operation.

Here are the specifications for the Heidenhain TE 530B:

  • Keyboard unit for Heidenhain iTNC 530
  • Contouring keys
  • Operating mode keys
  • Keyboard for use with WINDOWS
  • Touchpad
  • Replaceable axis keys V and VI
  • Spindle override potentiometer
  • Feed-rate override potentiometer
May 15, 2023

Holographic Telepresence System

It is a technology that enables remote collaboration among engineers, allowing them to share 3D models and virtual prototypes in real-time, improving communication and reducing travel costs. This technology also has applications in training and maintenance, enabling engineers to diagnose and repair equipment remotely.

May 11, 2023

TEVO 3D PRINTER

The Tevo Black Widow is a FDM 3D printer with a full metal frame, a large build volume of 370 x 250 x 300 mm, and a layer resolution of 50 microns. It is compatible with a variety of filaments, has a printing speed of up to 150 mm/s, and features a heated bed with a glass surface, USB and SD card connectivity, and a full-color touch screen display.

When it comes to performance and build size, you will be hard pressed to find a better deal than the Tevo Black Widow 3D Printer Kit. This 3D Printer kit boasts a large print area coming in at 370 x 250 x 300mm (14.6 x 9.8 x 11.8in). It is the big brother to the critically acclaimed Tevo Tarantula. This kit comes with the option of an auto bed leveling sensor, the BLTouch. The BLTouch one of the best auto bed leveling sensors available on the market. It is one of the best upgrades you can make to the already amazing Tevo Black Widow kit.

Technical specifications:

  • Print Speed: 100mm/s
  • Model Number: TEVO -Black Widow
  • Extruder : Microstep Extruder
  • Print material: PLA, ABS,Flexible PLA, HIPS,WOOD,PVA, Nylon
  • Layer thickness: 0.05mm
  • XY axis positioning accuracy: 0.012mm
  • Z-axis positioning accuracy: 0.004mm
  • File formats: STL,G-Code
  • Max printing size: 370*250*300mm
  • Control mainboard: MKS Gen v1.4
  • Machine Volume: 600*600*600mm

More details here: Tevo Black Widow 3D Printer Kit – Tevo USA

May 15, 2022

History of the Laboratory

The Smart Pneumatics Lab

The Smart Pneumatics Lab is placed in room CB110 in the Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Robotics (FIER) and belongs to the Department of Robots and Manufacturing Systems. Its history begins in the ’80s as a computer center of the Department of Machine-Tools and Gears, one of the greatest academia and engineering departments. During the communist regime, between the ’70s and `80s, Romania was a great manufacturer of machine-tools, pushing the academia to create great engineers.

Following the revolution of 1989 until 2008, the laboratory had a purpose as a teaching facility for new disciplines that used the computer. Some of these disciplines were CAD Techniques and Computer Programming, disciplines that made a lot of UPB students participate in extracurricular activities. As time passed, the equipment has become obsolete, thus making the room unusable for modern teaching activities.

2008

Things changed in 2008 when room CB110 became the first Technology Transfer Center in the Faculty of Engineering of Management and Technological Systems (FEMTS at that time). The Timișoara company Bibus SES, Romanian representative of Bibus AG, came up with a significant investment to bring students as close as possible to the engineers of employing companies. The main objective was to interface industry and academia with the help of this innovative, dynamic and private company who represented a very wide range of industry producers from all over the planet.

The Bibus Technology Center became a place where students made first contact with the industrial engineering market. They met many representatives of multinational companies new to the Romanian market. The investment of Bibus SES helped a lot of students to write their Bachelor’s projects or research papers, and at the same time, develop creativity and skills that later would be used by future engineers at work.

2017

The UPBAIR team was born in 2017. This team has built a continuous research project and successfully won the annual participation at the international Pneumobile competition powered by Aventics in Eger, Hungary. The need to study and take a closer look at advanced pneumatic systems makes the laboratory upgrade in 2020, paving a new way into the field of pneumatic industry. Thanks to the help offered by the Aventics – Eger specialists, we began studying to create a complex experimental stand, aimed to help us understand better smart pneumatic systems. The integration of pneumatic systems through IIoT has become the main goal of our laboratory, and we are trying to bring as close as possible to industry students, graduate students, Ph.D. candidates and engineers.

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